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ETHICS COMMITTEE WHITE PAPER

EL CAMINO COLLEGE COMPUTER CLUB

by

Frank Chao et al
The Ethics Committee of the El Camino College Computer Club

(June 22, 1995)

     I. DEFINITIONS

        A. Definition of "ethics":
           
           According to the American New Heritage Dictionary:
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           (Captured from CompuServe's "Reference" Section on 04-29-95:)     
      
           Search term: ethics

           CompuServe

           ethic
           ========================================
           eth*ic

           noun
           (1) (a) A set of principles of right conduct. 
               (b) A theory or a system of moral values: 
                   "An ethic of service is at war with a craving for gain" 
                    Source: GreggEasterbrook  
           (2)  ethics.   (used with a sing. verb) The study of the 
                general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices 
                to be made by a person; moral philosophy. 
           (3)  ethics.   (used with a sing. or pl. verb) The rules or
                standards governing the conduct of a person or the members 
                of a profession: medical ethics.
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        B. Definitions of Types of Software

           1. Commercial Software:

              Software that you pay for before you can use. After you 
              pay for it, you have two legal rights: 1) to use a single 
              copy on a single computer and 2) to make another copy for 
              archival purposes. The author retains full claim to his 
              copyright. Commercial software can be licensed in eight
              ways: machine, user, copy, simuultaneous use, file server,
              and site.
        
     

     
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           2. Shareware:

              Computer software that is marketed using a "try before you 
              buy system". You get it for free, or nearly so.  BBS 's 
              generally make it available to their subscribers at no 
              extra cost, and disk vendors (who sell by catalog) and rack 
              sellers (who sell in stores) usually sell it for a small 
              premium over the cost of the disk it is on and its packaging.  
              After using the software for a trial period--usually 30
              days--you are required to pay its author a registration fee. 
              The registration fee is usually a lot less than the retail 
              price of most store-bought software. Shareware is copyright 
              protected. Shareware authors use their copyright as the 
              basis of their registration fee requirement. If you use  
              shareware after the trail period without paying the fee, 
              you have infringed the author's copyright.

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           3. Freeware:

              Computer software that is distributed much as shareware is, 
              except that it has no "trial period. If you like it, you
              can use it, and not have to pay anyone a registration fee. 
              Freeware is also copyright protected, but freeware authors 
              use their copyright as the basis for non-fee requirements 
              only. They may limit distribution of their program to BBSs, 
              for instance, or limit the price at which vendors can resell 
              it (a limit that would be illegal absent a copyright), or 
              limit its distribution to a certain date to make it easier 
              to sell by ordinary retail distribution thereafter. If you  
              dishonor whatever copying and distribution limits a freeware 
              author imposes on his program, you have infriinged his
              copyright.

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           4. Public Domain Software:

              Software that is not only free of registration, but is free 
              of copyright and every other soft of intellectual property 
              protection. Once you get a copy, you can copy it and 
              distribute it and change it, without restriction and 
              without paying royalties to anyone. Public domain 
              software is not only free of registration, but is free of 
              copyright and every other soft or intellectual property 
              protection. Which means, one you get a copy, you can 
              copy it and distribute it and change it, without 
              restriction and without paying royalties to anyone.

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      II. DETAILS ON THE SUBJECT OF ETHICS
          (See Appendix 1.)

     
     III. INVESTIGATIONS OF SUBJECTS PERTAINING TO COMPUTER ETHICS 


          A. Materials provided by the Software Publishers Association 
             (SPA)


             1. Brochure entitled 
                   "SOFTWARE USE AND THE LAW".
                (See Appendix 2.)
       

             2. Brochure entitled 
                   "IS IT OKAY TO COPY MY COLLEAGUE'S SOFTWARE?"
                (See Appendix 3.)


             3. Brochure entitled 
                   "COPYRIGHT PROTECTION CAMPAIGN FACTSHEET"
                (See Appendix 4.)

 


      IV. INTERNET LOCATIONS FOR THE FURTHER STUDY OF COMPUTER ETHICS


           A. Electronic versions of SPA Documents:

              http://www.spa.org/
              (Access via "World Wide Web" browser such as "Mosaic" 
               or "Lynx")


           B. Vast Archive of Documents: 
      
              gopher://spinaltap.micro.umn.edu:70/11/computer/Ethics
              (Access via either "World Wide Web" browser or "Gopher" 
              client)


           C. A place with some unconventional views on computer ethics:

              http://www.eff.org/       
              (Access via "World Wide Web" broswer such as "Mosaic" or 
               "Lynx")
              ("EFF" stands for Electronic Frontier Foundation.)




       V. CONSIDERATIONS/INPUT FACTORS FOR THE COMPUTER CLUB'S ETHICAL
          STANDARDS


              
           A. "El Camino College STANDARDS OF STUDENT CONDUCT"
               (BOARD POLICY 5138)



           B. Federal copyright laws:
              Code of Federal Regulations, Title 17



           C. Industry standards via documentation from organizations such
              as the SPA.



           D. Cultural practices as displayed by fellow students



           E. Less conventional views such as those espoused by the
              EFF.



           F. Case studies as provided by club members' descriptions of
              workplace experiences.



      VI. THE LEGALITY OF SELLING SOFTWARE AS A FUNDRAISING MECHANISM 
          MUST BE DETERMINED ON A CASE BY CASE BASIS FOR EACH ITEM OF 
          SOFTWARE.

       A. As owners of "intellectual property" under Federal 
          Regulations, software publishers have the legal right to 
          determine the exact circumstances, if any, when licensees 
          can transfer software.

       B. The Ethics Committee has performed an analysis of the 
          transfer rights that various software publishers confer 
          upon their licensees, for various software offerings. 
         (See Appendix 5.)
         
       C. The exact circumstances when software licenses can be
          transferred differ between the various software 
          manufacturers.

          1. Based on the software packages that were examined, 
             the following manufacturers prohibit the right to 
             transfer software:
            
             Inset Systems ("Hijaak")
             Personics ("Monarch")
             Wordperfect Division of Novell (Prior to it's 
                acquisition by Novell)
             Datastorm Technologies ("Procomm")
             Disk Technician Corporation
             Parsons Technology
             The Freesoft Company ("White Knight")
          
          2. In all but one of the above, the software publisher 
             denies the right to transfer by simply not stating 
             that the licensee has such a right in the literature 
             that accompanies the software package(s). The exception 
             to this is Personics' "Monarch for Windows" product. In 
             a brochure that accompanies this package, the publisher 
             states:

             "3. You may not loan, sell, or distribute or otherwise 
                 provide use of the software to anyone for any 
                 purpose."
             
             (This is as restrictive as it gets.)

          3. The following publishers/packages prohibit the transfer 
             of software, once an upgrade version is generally 
             available (GA), unless a legal copy of the update(s) is 
             also provided at the same time:

             Lotus Organizer/Lotus Development Corp.
             Disk Technician Gold/Disk Technician Corporation

       D. The exact circumstances when software licenses can be 
          transferred differ between the various products of the 
          same software manufacturer.
     
          1. Lotus Development Corp:
             
            "Lotus Organizer" can be transferred only when a legal copy 
             of the update(s) are also transferred at the same time, if
             any are available.

             Lotus's "Freelance Graphics for Windows" product does not 
             have such a restriction.

          2. Delrina Technology, Inc.:

             The 2 versions of Winfax Pro, 2 and 3, can be transferred
            "...if you notify Delrina Inc. of the name and address of 
             the other party.."

             For "Crosstalk for Windows", Delrina Technology denies the 
             licensee the right to transfer the software by not stating
             that the licensee has this right.

          3. Borland:

             For the DOS and Windows versions of "Paradox", a brochure
             entitled "No-nonsense License Statement" grants the 
             licensee the right to transfer the software.

             For "Borland C++", Borland denies the licensee the right 
             to transfer the software by not stating that the license 
             has this right.

     VII. A document called "The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics"  
          has been published by the Computer Ethics Institute. While
          acknowledging the value of the content, the Ethics Committee
          neither condones nor condemns it's use of a biblical format.
          (See Appendix 6.)

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                             APPENDIX 1


          The following article about "ethics" is taken from the
          CD-ROM entitled "The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia":


          Copyright - 1993 Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc.

          ethics

          Ethics, or moral philosophy, the branch of philosophy 
          concerned with conduct and character, is the systematic 
          study of the principles and methods for distinguishing 
          right from wrong and good from bad.  Ethics has various 
          interconnections with other branches of philosophy, such 
          as metaphysics, the study of reality, and epistemology, 
          the study of knowledge;  this may be seen in such 
          questions as whether there is any real difference between 
          right and wrong and, if there is, whether it can be known.

          Experiences that have led to ethical inquiry are 
          uncertainty or conflicts of opinion about what ought to be 
          done;  the sometimes painful consequences of an action 
          that earlier seemed perfectly acceptable;  and awareness 
          of differences in norms and practices among different 
          societies.  These experiences give rise not only to 
          questions of practical ethics (What should I do?  Is this 
          arrangement fair?) but also to questions of theoretical 
          ethics (Is any one of these standards really right or are 
          they all just arbitrary?).  Such experiences are also the 
          main source of moral skepticism--along with the fact that 
          moral judgments appear unverifiable by observation, 
          because there seems to be nothing in experience 
          corresponding to the rightness of an action.  Thus these 
          questions, among others, have been generated:  What does 
          it mean to say that something is right or good?  What 
          makes right actions right? How can disputes about moral 
          questions be resolved?  It is the task of ethics to answer 
          such questions.

          Philosophical ethics is often called normative ethics and 
          distinguished from descriptive ethics.  Descriptive ethics 
          is a department of empirical science, akin to sociology, 
          that aims to discover and describe what moral beliefs are 
          held in a given culture (see MORAL AWARENESS).  Normative 
          ethics aims rather to prescribe;  it searches for norms, 
          not in the sense of what is average and in that sense 
          normal, but in the sense of authoritative standards of 
          what ought to be.

          Metaethics

          A distinction within ethics of importance in contemporary 
          discussions is that between normative ethics and 
          metaethics. Metaethics (literally "about ethics") is the 
          analytical study of the discipline of ethics itself.  The 
          term came into use only in the 20th century and thus 
          cannot be found in the works of any of the classical moral 
          philosophers, although inquiries of the sort that 
          constitute it certainly can.  Metaethics attempts to 
          determine the meanings of normative terms, such as right, 
          good, ought, justice, and obligation, to determine their 
          interconnections and whether any of these concepts is 
          basic. It also attempts to analyze the nature of moral 
          judgments and to determine both whether they can be 
          justified and whether they can be true or false.  A 
          question of some prominence in recent discussions is 
          whether an "ought" can be deduced from an "is" and just 
          what the relation is between facts and values.

          These are questions of both metaethics and traditional 
          ethics, and the importance of the distinction between 
          metaethics and normative ethics is itself controversial, 
          some writers regarding it as essential, others as not.  
          The question at issue is whether it is possible to analyze 
          moral concepts and judgments without at the same time 
          presupposing moral beliefs. If so then metaethics can be 
          morally neutral, otherwise not.

          Among the main approaches in metaethics are views called 
          naturalism, cognitivism, intuitionism, and subjectivism. 
          Naturalism (represented in different ways by Herbert 
          SPENCER and John DEWEY) maintains that moral terms name 
          complex matters of fact and that moral judgments can be 
          established by scientific or factual investigation;  
          non-naturalistic theories (such as that of G. E. MOORE) 
          deny this.  A cognitivist theory maintains that moral 
          judgments can be true or false and can, in principle, be 
          subjects of knowledge or cognition; noncognitivist 
          theories deny this.  These two categories overlap, and a 
          cognitivist theory can be naturalistic or non-naturalistic.

          Intuitionists such as H. A. Prichard and W. D. Ross claim 
          that the sort of knowledge we have of right and wrong is 
          immediate and self-evident.  Reaction to intuitionism has 
          led to subjectivism, emotivism, and imperativism.  
          Subjectivists maintain that moral judgments state only 
          subjective facts about attitudes and make no assertion 
          about the object;  thus if one says that something is 
          wrong one is saying only that one disapproves of it or 
          that society does.  The emotive theory (A. J. AYER, C. L. 
          Stevenson) claims that moral judgments do not state 
          anything that is capable of being true or false, even 
          subjectively, but merely express emotions;  moral terms, 
          according to this view, have only emotive meaning, like 
          oaths or exclamations.  Imperativism (Rudolf CARNAP) 
          claims that moral judgments are commands in disguise (so 
          that "You ought to do that" means simply "Do that!") and 
          hence incapable of truth or falsity.  Imperativism and 
          emotivism are forms of noncognitivism.  Subjectivism, 
          however, is not, although it cannot usefully be classified 
          as cognitivist either.

          Any philosophical consideration of morality must come to 
          terms with moral skepticism, and these different 
          metaethical theories are different responses to 
          skepticism.  Any theory that maintains that moral 
          principles cannot be proved, that there are no moral 
          truths, that morality has no rational basis, or that the 
          difference between right and wrong is merely a matter of 
          taste or convention, is a form of moral skepticism. 
          Subjectivism, imperativism, and emotivism are thus forms 
          of skepticism.  Cognitivist theories, on the other hand, 
          are usually incompatible with it.

           A widespread and familiar form of skepticism is ethical 
           relativism, the view that there is no one correct moral 
           code for all times and peoples, that each group has its 
           own morality relative to its wants and values, and that 
           all moral ideas are necessarily relative to a particular 
           culture.  According to this view, cannibals are justified 
           in eating human beings by the standards of their own 
           culture even if not by the standards of Western culture, 
           and there can be no basis for claiming that the standards 
           of Western culture are superior to theirs.

           Relativism seems to be supported by the most cursory 
           observations of the diversity among cultures and 
           constitutes a problem both for metaethics and for 
           normative ethics.  For if there is no right or wrong that 
           can be determined apart from the conventions of one's own 
           culture, the question arises of what ought to be done when 
           different cultures come into conflict.  Among the 
           cannibals should I do as the cannibals do or should I act 
           according to the standards of my own culture? Even 
           relativists and other moral skeptics tend to pursue an 
           answer by a process of moral reasoning, which may appeal 
           to one of the standards of normative ethics.  Even if one 
           as a theorist adopts an emotivist or other skeptical 
           stance, one as a human being will confront problems of 
           conduct that call for answers.

           Normative Ethics

           Among the questions of normative ethics are:  What makes 
           right actions right?  How can we tell what is right?  Why 
           should I be moral?  Major theories are usually classified 
           as consequentialist (teleological) or nonconsequentialist 
           (deontological).  Consequentialism maintains that the 
           morality of an action is determined solely by its 
           consequences. Deontological theories claim, variously, 
           that the morality of an action depends on its intrinsic 
           nature, or on its motives, or on its being in accordance 
           with some rule or principle, and either not at all or only 
           partly on consequences.

           Teleological theories vary in their determination of what 
           consequences are relevant and in how the value of the 
           consequences is to be determined, but all interpret moral 
           judgments as dependent on values and evaluation, hence on 
           value theory.  One such value theory is HEDONISM, the view 
           that only pleasure is good as an end, and teleological 
           theories are commonly classified as hedonistic or 
           nonhedonistic. UTILITARIANISM (Jeremy BENTHAM, John Stuart 
           MILL), the theory that the greatest happiness of the 
           greatest number is the test of right and wrong, is 
           hedonistic, since it interprets happiness as a balance of 
           pleasure over pain.  A nonhedonistic form of 
           consequentialism is the "ideal utilitarianism" of G. E. 
           Moore and Hastings Randall, which maintains that one ought 
           to do that act of all those available in the circumstances 
           that would produce the most good.  Another rival to 
           utilitarianism is self-realizationism, or perfectionism 
           (ARISTOTLE, Thomas Hill GREEN), which holds that the 
           ultimate end is the full development or perfection of the 
           self.  This is a form of teleological theory, but it is 
           not hedonistic.

           Some theories do not readily fall under the above 
           classification.  One such is the theological (or divine 
           command) theory that it is the will of God that determines 
           whether an action is right or wrong.  On this view (Saint 
           AUGUSTINE, William Paley) the morality of an act depends 
           on neither its consequences nor its essential nature nor 
           its motive, but solely on whether it is in accordance with 
           the will of God.  Such theological theories have had wide 
           acceptance and correspond closely to what many religious 
           though nonreflective people uncritically think is the 
           truth about morality. Religion, however, does not 
           necessarily commit one to the theological theory, which 
           has received as much criticism by theists (Richard 
           Whately) as by nontheists (Moore).

           In the philosophy of Immanuel KANT, for one's action to be 
           morally right one must be able to will one's maxim to be a 
           universal law, that is, be willing to have everyone act in 
           the same way (see also CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE).  Kant 
           imported another element into the discussion by 
           introducing the concept of moral worth, insisting that 
           one's action, even if right, has moral value only if one's 
           motive for acting was to do what is right.  Moral worth, 
           then, depends on one's motive or intention, and not on 
           what is actually done.

           EGOISM (Thomas HOBBES), basing itself on the idea that 
           everyone acts always out of self-interest, maintains that 
           an action is right only if it is in the interest of the 
           agent.  This is consequentialist but not utilitarian;  the 
           utilitarian view of what is right in conduct is that it 
           must be in the interest of everyone alike.  Egoism, 
           however, is not just another version of normative theory;  
           it is a challenge to ethical theory itself.  The challenge 
           of egoism is that it raises the questions Why should I be 
           moral?  What's in it for me?, which rest on the idea that 
           if there is no advantage in being moral, the agent can 
           have no reason to be.  Theological theories find it very 
           easy to answer this question;  others find it more 
           difficult.  The attempts to answer it have led to many 
           inquiries into the basis of human motivation, the sanction 
           for morality, the possibility of disinterested action, and 
           the proper organization of society.

           Situation ethics, which has come into prominence only 
           recently, claims that the morality of an action depends on 
           the situation and not on the application of a law to the 
           case.  This is a form of particular-case intuitionism and 
           is opposed to utilitarianism and Kantianism as well as the 
           divine-command theory.  The original idea can be traced 
           back to Aristotle, who held that the decision in a 
           particular case "rests with perception," and the idea can 
           be found in Ross (an intuitionist and non-naturalist) and 
           Dewey (a naturalist and consequentialist).

           Religious Ethics

           One of the main problems of moral philosophy is the 
           connection between morality and religion.  Religious 
           moralists tend to claim that there can be no morality 
           without religion, because without God there can be no 
           reason to be moral.  Philosophers (with exceptions) tend 
           to deny this, even take the opposite view.  Philosophers 
           as opposed as Mill and Kant held that religion rests on 
           morality, since religion itself depends on the distinction 
           between good and evil, an ethical concept.

           Social Ethics

           Some philosophers distinguish between personal ethics and 
           social ethics.  Personal ethics is taken as comprehending 
           how one should act in relation to oneself, social ethics 
           how one should act in relation to others.  Such a 
           distinction rests on differentiating between duties to 
           oneself and duties to others, and one standard question of 
           ethics is which of these is primary.  Other thinkers 
           (Dewey, for instance) regard the distinction as spurious, 
           however, and regard all morality as essentially social, as 
           comprehending problems that arise in a social setting.

           In recent years some moral philosophers have returned to 
           considering the questions of ethics in closer relation to 
           those of political and legal philosophy.  A paramount 
           question is that of the justice of social institutions, 
           especially (though not solely) the law.  John RAWLS's A 
           Theory of Justice (1971), which takes the basic structure 
           of society as the primary subject of justice and attempts 
           to derive laws for individual conduct from the principles 
           for institutions, has sparked great debate.  In the 
           process new interest has developed on the nature of a just 
           law, on whether one has a moral obligation to obey the 
           law, and on whether law itself can be defined 
           independently of morality.  These are questions both in 
           moral philosophy and in philosophy of law, as is the 
           question of whether morality can be legislated, which is 
           involved in disputes over racial integration and over 
           legal restrictions on sexual relations and abortion.

           Normative and Professional Ethics

           In recent years, owing to rapid social change and 
           unprecedented technological developments, there has been a 
           great resurgence of interest in normative ethics.  One 
           aspect of this is the attention given by scientists, 
           engineers, lawyers, physicians, journalists, and others to 
           the ethical problems involved in the practice of their 
           professions.  Some of these occupational groups have 
           formal codes of ethics, which set forth principles of 
           conduct deemed appropriate to the special objects and 
           responsibilities of each profession.  The code of the 
           medical profession, for instance, has characteristically 
           prohibited advertising;  that of the advertising 
           profession never has. There has, at the same time, been 
           great interest in the moral problems that arise in the 
           course of the professional activity itself.  These include 
           problems about how scarce resources, such as dialysis 
           machines or organ transplants, should be allocated, and on 
           how open and honest physicians should be with their 
           patients, especially those with a terminal illness.  The 
           very objectives of the medical profession (derived 
           ultimately from the HIPPOCRATIC OATH)--to save life, to 
           cure disease, and to alleviate suffering--are now seen to 
           be in some cases conflicting.  Devices are available that 
           can prolong life at the cost of increasing suffering, and 
           the problem of the morality of EUTHANASIA thus becomes 
           more pronounced.  Similar problems affect other 
           professions.

           New fields of ethics, such as bioethics, engineering ethics, 
           and environmental ethics, dealing with issues not 
           previously contemplated and with problems of concern to 
           all, are now developing rapidly.  Abortion and euthanasia 
           are familiar examples of moral problems in medicine 
           becoming moral problems for the wider society.  Another 
           area of serious debate concerns the propriety and limits 
           of experimentation on both human subjects and animals (see 
           ANIMAL RIGHTS).  Thus current discussions exemplify the 
           interplay between theory and practice, in this case in the 
           area of ethics, that has always been most fruitful for 
           both.

           Marcus G. Singer

           Bibliography:  Amato, Joseph A., Guilt and Gratitude 
           (1982); Billington, Ray, Living Philosophy:  An 
           Introduction to Applied Ethics (1988);  Fischer, J.M., and 
           Ravissa, M., Ethics (1991); Frankena, W.  K., Ethics, 2d 
           ed.  (1973);  Gert, Bernard, The Moral Rules (1973);  
           Hancock, R.  W., Twentieth Century Ethics (1974);  
           MacIntyre, Alasdair, A Short History of Ethics (1966); 
           Mappes, T.  A., and Zembaty, J.  S., eds., Social Ethics 
           (1977);  Melden, A.  I., ed., Ethical Theories, 2d ed.  
           (1967); Moore, G.  E., Ethics (1912;  repr.  1967);  
           Sellars, Wilfrid, and Hospers, John, eds., Readings in 
           Ethical Theory, 2d ed. (1970);  Sidgwick, Henry, The 
           Methods of Ethics (1961;  repr. 1986);  Singer, M.  G., 
           Generalization in Ethics (1961;  repr. 1971);  Singer, 
           Peter, Applied Ethics (1986);  Stevenson, C. L., Ethics 
           and Language (1944;  repr.  1975);  Sumner, L.  W., The 
           Moral Foundation of Rights (1987);  Taylor, P.  W., 
           Principles of Ethics (1975);  Theroux, Jacques P., Ethics: 
           Theory and Practice, 3d ed.  (1986);  Wellman, Carl, 
           Morals and Ethics, 2d ed.  (1988).

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                               APPENDIX 2

     (The following is from this location on the World Wide Web of 
      the Internet:   
      http://www.spa.org/piracy/sftuse.htm)

       SPA Anti-Piracy: Software Use and the Law

                           SOFTWARE USE AND THE LAW


       _________________________________________________________________



    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     Introduction
     The Law
     Use of Software
     Rental of Software
     Use of Software by Schools
     User Groups
     Business Users
     Reporting Copyright Violations
     SPA Materials
     Conclusion
     Sample Corporate Policy Statement


       _________________________________________________________________

     EVERYONE BENEFITS FROM A HEALTHY COMPUTER SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

     With each passing year, evolving software technology brings us faster,
     more sophisticated, versatile and easy-to-use products. Business
     software allows companies to save time, effort and money. Educational
     computer programs teach basic skills and sophisticated subjects. Home
     software now includes a wide array of programs that enhance the user's
     productivity and creativity. Computer graphics have turned PCs into a
     veritable artist's palette, and new games are increasingly inventive.
     The industry is thriving and users stand to benefit along with the
     publishers.

     Along the way, however, the problem of software theft has developed,
     and threatens to impede the development of new software products.
     Romantically called "piracy," the unauthorized duplication of software
     is a Federal offense that affects everyone: large and small software
     publishers and legitimate users. Even the users of unlawful copies
     suffer from their own illegal actions. They receive no documentation,
     no customer support and no information about product updates.

     WHEN A FEW PEOPLE STEAL SOFTWARE, EVERYONE LOSES

     This guide is intended to provide a basic understanding of the issues
     involved in ethical software use. It will tell you what the laws are,
     how to follow them and why you should adhere to them. We encourage you
     to make and distribute copies of this brochure.

     This guide is only one component of an ongoing effort by the Software
     Publishers Association to increase public awareness of software
     piracy. If you have any questions about the legal use of software, or
     would like additional copies of this pamphlet, please call the
     Software Publishers Association at (202) 452-1600.

     THE LAW

     Software is automatically protected by federal copyright law from the
     moment of its creation. The rights granted to the owner of a copyright
     are clearly stated in the Copyright Act, which is found at Title 17 of
     the US Code. The Act gives the owner of the copyright the exclusive
     rights to "reproduce the copyrighted work" and "to distribute copies
     ... of the copyrighted work" (Section 106). It also states that
     "anyone who violates any of the exclusive rights of the copyright
     owner ... is an infringer of the copyright" (Section 501), and sets
     forth several penalties for such conduct. Persons who purchase a copy
     of software have no right to make additional copies without the
     permission of the copyright owner, except for the rights to (i) copy
     the software onto a single computer and to (ii) make "another copy for
     archival purposes only,” which are specifically provided in the
     Copyright Act (Section 117).

     Software creates unique problems for copyright owners because it is so
     easy to duplicate, and the copy is usually as good as the original.
     This fact, however, does not make it legal to violate the rights of
     the copyright owner. Although software is a new medium of intellectual
     property, its protection is grounded in the long-established copyright
     rules that govern other more familiar media, such as records, books,
     and films. The unauthorized duplication of software constitutes
     copyright infringement regardless of whether it is done for sale, for
     free distribution, or for the copier's own use. Moreover, copiers are
     liable for the resulting copyright infringement whether or not they
     knew their conduct violated federal law. Penalties include liability
     for damages suffered by the copyright owner plus any profits of the
     infringer that are attributable to the copying, or statutory damages
     of up to $100,000 for each work infringed. The unauthorized
     duplication of software is also a Federal crime if done "willfully and
     for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain."
     Criminal penalties include fines of as much as $250,000 and jail terms
     of up to 10 years.

     USE OF SOFTWARE

     Anyone who purchases a copy of software has the right to load it onto
     a single computer and to make another copy "for archival purposes
     only." It is illegal to load that software onto more than one computer
     or to make copies of that software for any other purpose unless
     specific permission has been obtained from the copyright owner. The
     law applies equally, for example, to a $25 game and a $750 project
     management program. Each product reflects a substantial investment of
     time and money by many individuals. Software development involves a
     team effort that blends the creative talents of writers, programmers
     and graphic artists. Piracy diminishes the value of a program and
     further, deprives the developers of fair compensation.

     Software piracy inhibits innovation. The software industry is filled
     with new developers trying to break into a crowded market. They can
     survive only if their products are purchased. Each theft makes staying
     in business more difficult.

     RENTAL OF SOFTWARE

     It has always been illegal to rent unauthorized copies of software.
     However, concern over the fact that the rental of authorized or
     original software frequently resulted in the creation of pirated
     software led Congress to enact the Software Rental Amendments Act of
     1990 (Public Law 101-650), which now prohibits the rental, leasing, or
     lending of original copies of any software without the express
     permission of the copyright owner. Consequently, it is important to
     recognize and comply with this clarification of the copyright law.

     USE OF SOFTWARE BY SCHOOLS

     Public or private educational institutions are not exempt from the
     copyright laws. To the contrary, because of their unique position of
     influence, schools must remain committed to upholding the copyright
     laws. Just as it would be wrong to buy one textbook and photocopy it
     for use by other students, it is wrong for a school to duplicate
     software (or to allow its faculty or students to do so) without
     authority from the publisher.

     Some people claim that software publishers should allow schools to
     copy programs because it is the only way some school systems can
     afford to provide enough software for their students. However, the
     acquisition of software is no different than any other product or
     service required by a school. Schools purchase books, audio-visual
     equipment and classroom furniture, and they pay a fair price for them.
     Newer and better software can be developed only if the software
     development team receives a fair price for its efforts.

     Many software firms offer special sales arrangements to schools. These
     include discounts for additional copies of programs, reduced-priced
     lab packs (a quantity of programs sold together) and site license
     agreements (an arrangement that allows a school to make a specified
     number of copies for one location at a fixed price). Schools should
     make every effort to uphold the law, because it is by their example
     that students will learn to have respect for intellectual property.


       USER GROUPS

     The personal computer industry owes much of its success to the
     proliferation of user groups. These groups provide a valuable service
     as forums for sharing computing experience and expertise. User groups
     should, however, ensure that their meetings are not used to promote
     illegal duplication or distribution of software.

     The unauthorized duplication or distribution of software by user
     groups or at user group meetings places many people in a vulnerable
     position. The individuals who duplicate or distribute software, as
     well as the user group itself and the owner of the meeting place, may
     be held responsible as copyright violators.

     A close relationship between user groups and the software publishing
     community is mutually beneficial. User groups should encourage ethical
     software use among their members. Likewise, software publishers should
     respond to users' needs for proper support and updates.

     BUSINESS USERS

     In the workplace, "softlifting" is characterized by two common
     incidents: extra copies of software are made for employees to take
     home, and extra copies are made for the office. Both situations mean a
     greater number of computers can run more copies of the software than
     were originally purchased.

     Unless a special arrangement has been made between the business user
     and the publisher, the user must follow a simple rule: one software
     package per computer. This means that a copy of software should be
     purchased for every computer on which it will be used. For example, if
     the business has 10 computers on which employees use spreadsheet
     software, it must purchase 10 copies of such software. If there are 25
     secretaries using word processing software on their computers, each
     secretary must have a purchased copy, etc.

     Another option that has proven successful is for firms to enter into
     special site licensing purchase agreements with publishers. These
     agreements compensate the publishers for the “lost sales” they might
     have made on a package-by-package basis because the company agrees to
     pay a certain amount for a specific number of copies they will make
     and not exceed on site. At the same time, they eliminate the
     possibility that copyright violations will occur. By buying as many
     programs as it will need, a company removes the incentive for
     employees to make unauthorized copies. Adhering to these rules will
     pay off in the long run, because a firm that illegally duplicates
     software exposes itself to tremendous liability.

     Many software applications are sold in "Local Area Network" (LAN)
     versions. If your company has a LAN, be sure to follow the publisher's
     guidelines for the use of software on the LAN. It is a violation of
     the copyright laws and most license agreements to allow a single-copy
     version of software on a LAN to be simultaneously accessed by more
     than one user.

     Finally, it has been found that when companies enact a policy
     statement stating their intention to ensure employee compliance with
     copyright regulations, the risk of software piracy is reduced. A
     sample corporate policy statement is included on the back panel of
     this brochure.

     REPORTING COPYRIGHT VIOLATIONS

     The SPA has established a special toll free number for reports of
     copyright violations: 1-800-388-7478. The SPA has filed many lawsuits
     against individuals and companies engaged in the unauthorized
     duplication of PC software and will continue to do so when it becomes
     aware of situations that warrant such action.
   

     SPA MATERIALS

     The SPA has a variety of materials about the legal use of software.
     Our Self-Audit Kit describes procedures appropriate for ensuring that
     a business or organization is "software legal." The Kit includes
     SPAudit, a software management tool, and is available free of charge
     to businesses and organizations (DOS or Macintosh versions). In
     addition, the SPA has a 12 minute videotape on the subject of software
     piracy entitled "It's Just Not Worth The Risk." The video is a useful
     tool for instructing business users about the legal use of software
     products and is available for $15. We also publish additional
     brochures and a poster on the subject of software piracy. Please call
     or write the SPA if you are interested in obtaining any of these
     materials.
   

     CONCLUSION

     Most people do not purposely break the law. They would never consider
     stealing money from someone’s pocket. But those who copy software
     without authorization are stealing intellectual property and they
     should understand the consequences of their actions.

     If you are an individual user, don't break the law. Everyone pays for
     your crime. If you are part of an organization, see to it that your
     organization complies with the law, and that it issues an appropriate
     policy statement that is signed and respected by all involved.
   

     SAMPLE CORPORATE POLICY STATEMENT

     Company/Agency Policy Regarding the Use of Microcomputer Software

      1. (Company/Agency) purchases or licenses the use of copies of
         computer software from a variety of outside companies.
         (Company/Agency) does not own the copyright to this software or
         its related documentation and, unless authorized by the software
         developer, does not have the right to reproduce it for use on more
         than one computer.
      2. With regard to use on local area networks or on multiple machines,
         (Company/Agency) employees shall use the software only in
         accordance with the license agreement.
      3. (Company/Agency) employees learning of any misuse of software or
         related documentation within the company shall notify the
         department manager or (Company’s/Agency's) legal counsel.
      4. According to the US. Copyright Law, illegal reproduction of
         software can be subject to civil damages of as much as $100,000
         per work copied, and criminal penalties, including fines and
         imprisonment. (Company/Agency) employees who make, acquire or use
         unauthorized copies of computer software shall be disciplined as
         appropriate under the circumstances. Such discipline may include
         termination. (Company/Agency) does not condone the illegal
         duplication of software.



     I am fully aware of the software protection policies of
     (Company/Agent) and agree to uphold those policies.

     Employee Signature and Date


       _________________________________________________________________


      SOFTWARE PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION
      1730 M St., NW
      Suite 700
      Washington, D.C. 20036
      Phone: 202-452-1600 Fax: 202-223-8756
      Piracy Hotline-1-800-388-7478

     Copyright 1995 Software Publishers Association

---------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               APPENDIX 3
 
     (The following is from this location on the World Wide Web of 
      the Internet:
      http:///www.spa.org/okay.htm)

     SPA Anti-Piracy Brochure: Copying Software 
   

                          TO COPY OR NOT TO COPY...


       _________________________________________________________________

    This popular brochure from the SPA Anti-Piracy department answers some
    of the most commonly asked questions about the legality of copying
    software products.
       * Is it Okay to copy my colleague's software?
       * That makes sense, but what do I get out of purchasing my own
         software?
       * What exactly does the law say about copying software?
       * So I'm never allowed to copy software for any other reason?
       * At my company, we pass disks around all the time. We all assume
         that this must be okay since it was the company that purchased
         the software in the first place.
       * Do the same rules apply to bulletin boards and user groups? I
         always thought that the reason they got together was to share
         software.
       * What about schools and professional training organizations?
       * I'll bet most of the people who copy software don't even know that
         they're breaking the law.
       _________________________________________________________________

    Is it Okay to copy my colleague's software?

          No, it's not okay to copy your colleague's software. Software
          is protected by federal copyright law, which says that you
          can't make such additional copies without the permission of the
          copyright holder. By protecting the investment of computer
          software companies in software development, the copyright law
          serves the cause of promoting broad public availability of new,
          creative, and innovative products. These companies devote large
          portions of their earnings to the creation of new software
          products and they deserve a fair return on their investment.
          The creative teams who develop the software-- programmers,
          writers, graphic artists and others-- also deserve fair
          compensation for their efforts. Without the protection given by
          our copyright laws, they would be unable to produce the
          valuable programs that have become so important in our daily
          lives: educational software that teaches us much needed skills;
          business software that allows us to save time, effort and
          money; and entertainment and personal productivity software
          that enhances leisure time.

    That makes sense, but what do I get out of purchasing my own software?

          When you purchase authorized copies of software programs, you
          receive user guides and tutorials, quick reference cards, the
          opportunity to purchase upgrades, and technical support from
          the software publishers. For most software programs, you can
          read about user benefits in the registration brochure or
          upgrade flyer in the product box. 
          
    What exactly does the law say about copying software?

          The law says that anyone who purchases a copy of software has
          the right to load that copy onto a single computer and to make
          another copy "for archival purposes only." It is illegal to use
          that software on more than one computer or to make or
          distribute copies of that software for any other purpose unless
          specific permission has been obtained from the copyright owner.
          If you pirate software, you may face not only a civil suit for
          damages and other relief, but criminal liability as well,
          including fines and jail terms of up to five years for a first
          offense, ten years for a second offense.

    So I'm never allowed to copy software for any other reason?

          That's correct. Other than copying the software you purchase
          onto a single computer and making another copy "for archival
          purposes only," the copyright law prohibits you from making
          additional copies of the software for any other reason unless
          you obtain the permission of the software company.

    At my company, we pass disks around all the time. We all assume that this
    must be okay since it was the company that purchased the software in the
    first place.

          Many employees don't realize that corporations are bound by the
          copyright laws, just like everyone else. Such conduct exposes
          the company (and possibly the persons involved) to liability
          for copyright infringement. Consequently, more and more
          corporations concerned about their liability have written
          policies against such "softlifting". Employees may face
          disciplinary action if they make extra copies of the company's
          software for use at home or on additional computers within the
          office. A good rule to remember is that there must be one
          authorized copy of a software product for every computer upon
          which it is run.

    Do the same rules apply to bulletin boards and user groups? I always
    thought that the reason they got together was to share software.

          Yes. Bulletin boards and user groups are bound by the copyright
          law just as individuals and corporations. However, to the
          extent they offer shareware or public domain software, this is
          a perfectly acceptable practice. Similarly, some software
          companies offer bulletin boards and user groups special
          demonstration versions of their products, which in some
          instances may be copied. In any event, it is the responsibility
          of the bulletin board operator or user group to respect
          copyright law and to ensure that it is not used as a vehicle
          for unauthorized copying or distribution.

    What about schools and professional training organizations?

          The same copyright responsibilities that apply to individuals
          and corporations apply to schools and professional training
          organizations. No one is exempt from the copyright law.

    I'll bet most of the people who copy software don't even know that 
    they're breaking the law.
    
          Because the software industry is relatively new, and because
          copying software is so easy, many people are either unaware of
          the laws governing software use or choose to ignore them. It is
          the responsibility of each and every software user to
          understand and adhere to copyright law. Ignorance of the law is
          no excuse. If you are part of an organization, see what you can
          do to initiate a policy statement that everyone respects. Also,
          suggest that your management consider conducting a software
          audit. Finally, as an individual, help spread the word that the
          users should be "software legal." 

          The Software Publishers Association produces a Self-Audit Kit
          that describes procedures appropriate for ensuring that a
          business or organization is "software legal." For a free copy
          of the Self-Audit Kit, including a sample corporate policy
          statement and "SPAudit," a software management tool, please
          write to the following address. Please specify the format (DOS
          or Macintosh) and disk size (3.5" or 5.25" for DOS) with your
          request.
          
    "Self-Audit Kit" Software Publishers Association 1730 M Street, NW,
     Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20036 (800) 388-7478

          Special thanks to Aldus Corporation for their contribution to
          this brochure. We urge you to make as many copies as you would
          like in order to help us spread the word that unauthorized
          coping of software is illegal.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                APPENDIX 4

     (The following is from this location on the World Wide Web of 
      the Internet:   
      http://www.spa.org/cpcfacts.htm)

     SPA Copyright Protection Campaign Fact Sheet

    COPYRIGHT PROTECTION CAMPAIGN FACT SHEET
     _________________________________________________________________

     * Analysis by the SPA estimates that 1993 revenue received from
       personal computer business application software totaled $8
       billion, while revenue lost to software piracy by U.S. publishers
       during that same year was $7.5 billion.

     * The US is the largest personal computer software market in the
       world but it also the world's leader in piracy losses, with losses
       of $1.5 billion in 1993.

     * The industry's public awareness and enforcement efforts have
       reduced the level of piracy in the US from 48% in 1989 to 33% in
       1993, a one-third reduction.

     * Estimates show that over 40% of US software company revenues are
       generated overseas. Yet, around the world, US publishers continue
       to suffer losses of many hundreds of millions of dollars from
       software piracy and counterfeiting. Nearly 80% of the industry's
       piracy losses occur outside US borders.

     * Most other countries of the world purchase fewer than 4 business
       applications for every PC, with some countries purchasing fewer
       than 1. The trend is positive, though: in 1991, only the US and
       Canada purchased as many as 2 applications per PC. In 1993, 9
       countries purchased more than 2, and 5 countries purchased more
       than 3 applications per PC.

     * If every computer purchaser outside North America increased
       software purchases from 2 to 3.6, unit sales would rise 63% from
       current levels. At 1993 average costs per business application,
       that increase would generate an additional $5.1 billion annually
       for the PC software industry.

     * If users outside North America reached US levels of 5.5
       applications per computer, unit sales would more than double,
       generating an additional $9.5 billion in revenues.

     * There is not a direct relationship between the high price of
       software and the amount of piracy. While the average price for
       business applications fell by 53% in 1993, piracy losses fell as
       fast or faster in only 2 countries (Sweden and the UK/Ireland).
       Essentially, the number of applications pirated increased
       year-after-year despite significant price reductions.

     * The federal copyright law states that it is illegal to make a copy
       of a piece of software for any reason other than as a back-up
       without the permission of the copyright holder. Civil penalties
       for companies/individuals who break this law can be as high as
       $100,000 for each copyright infringement.

     * As of October 1992, commercial piracy of software is a felony
       offense (Public Law 102-561) under which penalties include prison
       terms of up to 5 years (10 for repeat offenders) and fines up to
       $250,000.

     * Though it is a misdemeanor to make fewer than ten unauthorized
       copies of a program, small-scale offenders may be subject to
       substantial civil penalties.

     * Software piracy presents a unique problem for the industry in that
       there is virtually no degeneration in quality from copy to copy.

     * Few other industries lose as much revenue to theft. This
       ultimately curtails the industry's competitiveness, as developers
       are unable to quickly recover development costs and thereby fund
       new development efforts.

     * Most SPA investigations begin with a call to the anti-piracy
       hotline. In response, the SPA conducts a thorough investigation
       before proceeding further. SPA has 7 full-time staff members
       assigned to investigate each report and prepare cases for legal
       action.

     * SPA's response can take one of the following forms:
          + Cease and desist letters
          + Corporate audits (in lieu of litigation) or
          + Litigation


     * In 1993, the hotline received approximately 25-30 calls per day.
       Based on these leads, the SPA took action against 577
       organizations (including 245 audits and lawsuits resulting in the
       payment of $3.6 million in fines and penalties).

     * In 1994, the SPA took action against 447 organizations. 197 audits
       and lawsuits; 250 cease and desist letters.

     * Of these audits and lawsuits filed, 95% were corporate cases,
       while the remaining 5% comprised bulletin board services, training
       facilities, and schools.

     * In 1993 and 1994, the SPA received five settlements of more than
       $100,000 each in audit actions.

     * In 1993 and 1994, the SPA received $3.6 million and $2.7 million,
       respectively, in settlements from its anti-piracy actions.

     * To date, the Campaign has filed more than 200 lawsuits against
       corporations, computer dealers, training schools, bulletin board
       systems, and educational institutions.

     * When warranted, the SPA will apply to federal judges for
       permission to conduct ex parte searches (raids) of defendants'
       computers. Such searches are used to prevent the destruction of
       evidence pending trial.

     * The SPA works closely with the FBI and has also written an
       enforcement manual for the FBI to help them investigate pirate
       bulletin board systems.

     * To date, all cases have settled out of court or are pending.
       Moneys from settlements go into the Campaign and are used to
       further the educational and anti-piracy goals of the Campaign.

     * In 1991, the SPA received its largest public settlement to date
       against an environmental and engineering consulting firm. The
       company paid $350,000 plus attorney's fees.

     * The same year, a settlement with the University of Oregon was
       reached (the first infringement suit brought against a public
       higher education institution). The University paid the SPA
       $130,000 and agreed to host a national conference on copyright law
       and software use.

     * Largest private settlement (audit) to date: $412,000. (1993)


____________________________________________________________________________


                                APPENDIX 5

     (The following is an analysis of the specific transferability rights, 
      as conferred upon enduser licensees by software publishers, for 
      specific products:)
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Lotus Development Corp.
     Title:      Lotus Organizer                     Version: 2.0
     Type:       Personal Information Manager       Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Brochure entitled "CUSTOMER SUPPORT SERVICES", page 16
     Statement: "RESTRICTIONS You may not alter, merge, modify, or adapt the
                 Software in any way including disassembling or decompiling. 
                 You may not loan, rent, lease, or license the Software or 
                 any copy. However, you may transfer the Software on a 
                 permanent basis provided you transfer the Software, this 
                 Software Agreement, and all documentation and media, and 
                 you do not retain any copies. Any transfer of the Software 
                 must include the most recent update and all prior versions. 
                 You may not transfer demonstration and evaluation ("D&E") 
                 software for commercial purposes."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Lotus Development Corp.
     Title:      Freelance Graphics for Windows      Version: 1.0
     Type:       Graphics                           Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Brochure entitled "Customer Assurance Plan"
     Statement: "YOU MAY: Transfer this Software to another party by 
                 transferring the original diskettes and all documentation, 
                 including a copy of this license agreement. You must delete 
                 or destroy all other copies of the Software. This transfer 
                 of possession terminates your license from Lotus."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Personics
     Title:      Monarch for Windows                 Version: 1.0
     Type:       Database Utility                   Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Brochure entitled "Installation Guide"
     Statement: "3. You may not loan, sell, or distribute or otherwise 
                 provide use of the software to anyone for any purpose."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Inset Systems
     Title:      Hijaak for Windows                  Version: 1.0
     Type:       Graphics Utility                   Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant user the 
                 right to transfer the software.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft
     Title:      Excel for Windows                   Version: 5.0
     Type:       Spreadsheet                        Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  "Microsoft Software License Card"
     Statement: "4. OTHER RESTRICTIONS. This License is your proof of 
                 license to exercise the rights granted herein and must be 
                 retained by you. You may not rent or lease the SOFTWARE, 
                 but you may transfer your rights under this License on a 
                 permanent basis provided you transfer this License, the 
                 SOFTWARE, and all acompanying printed materials, retain no 
                 copies, and the recipient agrees to the terms of this 
                 License.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft                           
     Title:      Powerpoint for Windows              Version: 4.0
     Type: Presentation/Graphics                    Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  "Microsoft Software License Card"
     Statement: "4. OTHER RESTRICTIONS. This License is your proof of 
                 license to exercise the rights granted herein and must be 
                 retained by you. You may not rent or lease the SOFTWARE, 
                 but you may transfer your rights under this License on a 
                 permanent basis provided you transfer this License, the 
                 SOFTWARE, and all acompanying printed materials, retain no 
                 copies, and the recipient agrees to the terms of this 
                 License.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft
     Title:      Word for Windows                    Version: 6.0
     Type:       Presentation/Graphics              Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  "Microsoft Software License Card"
     Statement: "4. OTHER RESTRICTIONS. This License is your proof of 
                 license to exercise the rights granted herein and must be 
                 retained by you. You may not rent or lease the SOFTWARE, 
                 but you may transfer your rights under this License on a 
                 permanent basis provided you transfer this License, the 
                 SOFTWARE, and all acompanying printed materials, retain no 
                 copies, and the recipient agrees to the terms of this 
                 License.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft
     Title:      Access                              Version: 2.0
     Type: Relational Database                      Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  "Microsoft Software License Card"
     Statement: "4. OTHER RESTRICTIONS. This License is your proof of 
                 license to exercise the rights granted herein and must be 
                 retained by you. You may not rent or lease the SOFTWARE, 
                 but you may transfer your rights under this License on a 
                 permanent basis provided you transfer this License, the 
                 SOFTWARE, and all acompanying printed materials, retain no 
                 copies, and the recipient agrees to the terms of this 
                 License.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft
     Title:      Foxpro (for DOS)                    Version: 2.6
     Type:       Relational Database                Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  "Microsoft Software License Card"
     Statement: "3. OTHER RESTRICTIONS. This Microsoft License Agreement is 
                 your proof of license to exercise the rights granted herein 
                 and must be retained by you. You may not rent or lease the 
                 SOFTWARE, but you may transfer your rights under this 
                 Microsoft License Agreement on permanent basis provided you 
                 transfer this License Agreement, the SOFTWARE, all 
                 accompanying written materials and retain no copies, and 
                 the recipient agrees to the terms of this Agreement.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft
     Title:      Windows                             Version: 3.1
     Type:       Operating System Overlay           Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Booklet entitled "Getting Started with Microsoft Windows", 
                 inside front cover
     Statement: "3. OTHER RESTRICTIONS. You may not rent or lease the 
                 SOFTWARE, but you may transfer the SOFTWARE and 
                 accompanying written materials on a permanent basis 
                 provided you retain no copies and the recipient agrees to 
                 the terms of this Agreement.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft
     Title:      MS-DOS                              Version: 6.2
     Type:       Operating System                   Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Inside front cover of manual entitled "Take a road trip 
                 with the MS-DOS 6 Upgrade"
     Statement: "5. OTHER RESTRICTIONS. You may not rent or lease the 
                 SOFTWARE, but you may transfer the SOFTWARE and 
                 accompanying materials on a permanent basis provided you 
                 retain no copies and the recipient agrees to the terms of 
                 the Agreement.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft
     Title:      MS-DOS                              Version: 5.0
     Type:       Operating System                   Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Inside front cover of manual entitled "Microsoft MS-DOS: 
                 Getting Started"
     Statement: "..you may transfer the SOFTWARE and accompanying written
                 materials on a permanent basis provided you retain no 
                 copies and the recipient agrees to the terms of this 
                 Agreement.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microsoft
     Title:      MS-DOS                              Version: 3.3
     Type:       Operating System                   Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Envelope that holds the diskettes
     Statement: "3. OTHER RESTRICTIONS. You may not rent or lease the 
                 SOFTWARE, but you may transfer the SOFTWARE and 
                 accompanying written materials on a permanent basis 
                 provided you retain no copies and the recipient agrees to 
                 the terms of this Agreement.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Wordperfect/Novell
     Title:      Wordperfect for Windows             Version: 1.0
     Type:       Word Processing                    Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Wordperfect/Novell
     Title:      Wordperfect                         Version: 5.1
     Type:       Word Processing                    Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Reference Software Internationaal
     Title:      Grammatik 5                         Version: 5.0
     Type:       Word Processing Utility            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Envelope that holds the diskettes
     Statement: "..You may transfer the program and license to another party 
                 if the other party agrees to accept the terms and 
                 conditions of this Agreement. If such a transfer occurs, 
                 your license is automatically terminated and you agree at 
                 the same time to either transfer all copies in any form to 
                 the other party or destroy any copies not transferred.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Symantec
     Title:      Xtree Gold                          Version: 3.0
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Card entitled "CENTRAL POINT SOFTWARE, INC. SOFTWARE 
                 LICENSE AGREEMENT"
     Statement: "..You may transfer the complete SOFTWARE and the 
                 accompanying written materials together on a permanent 
                 basis provided you do not retain any copies and the 
                 recipient agrees to the the terms of this Agreement.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Symantec
     Title:      PC Tools Pro for DOS                Version: 9.0
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Manual--page after title page
     Statement: "You may transfer the complete SOFTWARE and the accompanying
                 written materials together on a permanent basis provided 
                 you do not retain any copies and the recipient agrees to 
                 the terms of this Agreement."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Symantec
     Title:      PC Tools for DOS                    Version: 8.0
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Envelope that holds the diskettes
     Statement: "..You may transfer the complete SOFTWARE and the 
                 accompanying written materials together on a permanent 
                 basis provided you do not retain any copies and the 
                 recipient agrees to the the terms of this Agreement.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Symantec
     Title:      Norton Utilities                    Version: 8.0
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Fourth non-numbered page of manual entitled "Norton 
                 Utilities User's Guide"
     Statement: "..You may..(iv) after written notice to Symantec, transfer 
                 the Software on a permanent basis to another person or 
                 entity, provided that you retain no copies of the Software 
                 and the transferee agrees to the terms of this 
                 agreement;.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Symantec
     Title:      Norton Anti-virus                   Version: 2.1
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer the software.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Symantec
     Title:      The Norton Backup                   Version: 3.0
     Type: Utility                                  Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer the software.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Delrina
     Title:      Winfax Pro                          Version: 3.0
     Type:       Fax Communications                 Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Last page of manual entitled "Winfax Pro 3.0 User's Guide", 
                 second edition
     Statement: "..You may transfer this program and documentation together 
                 with this license to another party, but only if the other 
                 party agrees to accept wholly the terms and conditions of 
                 this license and if you notify Delrina Technology Inc. of 
                 the name and address of the other party. All copies must be 
                 transferred to the same party, or you must destroy those 
                 copies not transferred. Any such transfer terminates your 
                 license."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Delrina
     Title:      Winfax Pro                          Version: 2.0
     Type:       Fax Communications                 Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Last page of manual entitled "Winfax Pro User's Guide", 
                 second edition
     Statement: "..You may transfer this program and documentation together 
                 with this license to another party, but only if the other 
                 party agrees to accept wholly the terms and conditions of 
                 this license and if you notify Delrina Technology Inc. of 
                 the name and address of the other party. All copies must be 
                 transferred to the same party, or you must destroy those 
                 copies not transferred. Any such transfer terminates your 
                 license."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Delrina
     Title:      Crosstalk for Windows               Version: 2.0
     Type:       Modem Communications               Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Datastorm Technologies, Inc.
     Title:      Procomm Plus for Windows            Version: 1.0
     Type:       Modem Communications               Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Datastorm Technologies, Inc.
     Title:      Procomm Plus (for DOS)              Version: 2.0
     Type:       Modem Communications               Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Disk Technician Corporation
     Title:      Disk Technician Gold                Version: 1.0
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Manual entitled "User Guide", page "i"
     Statement: "..you may permanently transfer the Software to another 
                   party if you retain no copies of the Software, and if the 
                   receiving party agrees to accept the terms of this 
                   License Agreement. If the Software is an update or has 
                   been updated, any transfer must include the most recent 
                   update and prior versions.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Parsons Technology
     Title:      It's Legal                          Version: 3.0
     Type:       Forms, Legal                       Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Parsons Technology
     Title:      Virucide                            Version: 2.0
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Novell
     Title:      Personal Netware                    Version: 1.0
     Type:       Network, Peer-To-Peer              Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Brochure entitled "Personal Netware Software License"
     Statement: "Transfer of License. This License is not subject to 
                 transfer or assignment without written approval of Novell."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Novell
     Title:      Netware Lite                        Version: 1.1
     Type:       Network, Peer-To-Peer              Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Brochure entitled "Novell Single-Copy License Agreement"
     Statement: "Transfer of License. You may transfer this License to 
                 another person or entity if You obtain the prior written 
                 approval of Novell. Novell will not withhold approval if 
                 You advise Novell in writing of the name and address of 
                 the proposed transferee and the transferee agrees to be 
                 bound by this Agreement. If Novell approves the transfer of 
                 license, You agree to transfer all copies of the Software 
                 and Documentation, including any copies or adaptations you 
                 have made."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Novell
     Title:      Netware 4.1                         Version: 4.1
     Type:       Network                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Brochure entitled "Netware 4.X Software License"
     Statement: "Transfer of License. This License is not subject to 
                 transfer or assignment without the prior written approval 
                 of Novell."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Borland
     Title:      Paradox for Windows                 Version: 1.0
     Type:       Relational Database                Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Brochure entitled "No-nonsense License Statement"
     Statement: "..You may transfer all of your rights to use the software 
                 to another person, provided you transfer to that person (or 
                 destroy) all the software, diskettes, and documentation 
                 provided in this package, together with all copies, 
                 tangible or intangible, including copies in RAM or 
                 installed on a disk, as well as all back-up copies.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Borland
     Title:      Paradox for DOS                     Version: 4.0
     Type:       Relational Database                Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Brochure entitled "No-nonsense License Statement"
     Statement: "..You may transfer all of your rights to use the software 
                 to another person, provided you transfer to that person (or 
                 destroy) all the software, diskettes, and documentation 
                 provided in this package, together with all copies, 
                 tangible or intangible, including copies in RAM or 
                 installed on a disk, as well as all back-up copies.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Borland
     Title:      Borland C++                         Version: 3.1
     Type:       Programming Language               Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Netmanage, Inc.                     
     Title:      Chameleon/X                         Version: 4.01
     Type:       Network, Client                    Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Bloc Publishing
     Title:      Formfiller                          Version: 3.0
     Type:       Forms                              Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Envelope that holds the diskettes
     Statement: "..You may sell your license rights in the software to 
                 another party...If you sell your license rights in the 
                 software, you must at the same time transfer the 
                 documentation and the backup copy or destroy the backup 
                 copy. You cannot sell your license rights in the software 
                 to another party unless that party also agrees to the terms 
                 and conditions of this Agreement."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Relay Technology, Inc.
     Title:      Relay PC                            Version: 6.0
     Type:       Modem Communications               Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Envelope that holds the diskettes
     Statement: "..you may transfer your rights under this SOFNET License
                 Agreement on a permanent basis provided you transfer this 
                 License Agreement, all versions of the SOFTWARE Licensed to 
                 you, all accompanying written materials and retain no 
                 copies, and the recipient agrees to the terms of this 
                 Agreement. Transfer of the License terminates your right to 
                 use the Software.."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Quarterdeck Office Systems
     Title:      QEMM-386                            Version: 6.0
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: IBM-compatible
     Location:   Manual, inside front cover
     Statement: "..you may assign your rights under this Agreement on a 
                 permanent basis provided you transfer this Agreement, the 
                 SOFTWARE and all accompanying written materials, retain no 
                 copies and the recipient agrees to the terms of this 
                 Agreement."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       The Freesoft Company
     Title:      White Knight                        Version: 11
     Type:       Modem Communications               Platform: Macintosh
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Symantec
     Title:      Symantec Antivirus for Macintosh    Version: 3.0
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: Macintosh
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the right 
                 to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Symantec
     Title:      Central Point Mactools              Version: 2
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: Macintosh
     Location:   Envelope that holds the diskettes
     Statement: "You may transfer the complete SOFTWARE and the accompanying
                  written materials together on a permanent basis provided 
                  you do not retain any copies and the recipient agrees to 
                  the terms of this Agreement."
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: Yes
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Mfr.:       Microcom
     Title:      Virex                               Version: 1
     Type:       Utility                            Platform: Macintosh
     Location:  (Nowhere--Accompanying documentation does not grant the 
                 right to transfer.)
     Statement:
     Sellable by enduser/licensee?: No

____________________________________________________________________________

 
                                 APPENDIX 6


      
       The following was captured from the World Wide Web (WWW) 
       Internet server of the "Computer Professionals For Social
       Responsibility" organization (http://cpsr.org/dox/cei.html):

                    
                     THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF COMPUTER ETHICS

     1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.

     2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work.

     3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's computer files.

     4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.

     5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.

     6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have
        not paid.

     7. Thou shalt not use other people's computer resorces without
        authorization or proper compensation.

     8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output.

     9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you
        are writing or the system you are designing.

    10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure consideration
       and respect for your fellow humans.


     Computer Ethics Institute
     11 Dupont Circle, NW
     Suite 900
     Washington DC 20036
     Ph: 301-469-0615


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